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Coal mining - Choosing a mining method | Britannica.com

Coal mining - Coal mining - Choosing a mining method: The various methods of mining a coal seam can be classified under two headings, surface mining and underground mining. Surface and underground coal mining are broad activities that incorporate numerous variations in equipment and methods, and the choice of which method to use in extracting a coal seam depends on many …

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Longwall Top Coal Caving Method - SlideShare

Feb 19, 2014· LTCC • Longwall Top coal Caving (LTCC) is a method of extraction for underground mining of thick seams. • It uses a longwall set-up and natural forces to aid in the winning of coal. 4.

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longwall top coal caving Mining -- HOT mining

A further 75%~80% of the additional coal in the seam can be accessed and recovered, significantly improving the total recovery Above Pic,A typical mining planning of longwall top coal caving method Coal Seam Thickness 4.5-7 Meters; Phase3rd 6.5-7 Meters. Depth of Coal 400-700 Meters; currently, the mining depth is 530 Meters

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Longwall Top Coal Caving | Introduction | underground COAL

Longwall Top Coal Caving. Longwall top coal caving (LTCC) is a special type of longwall mining applicable to very thick seams (greater than 4.5m) where good quality coal is being left because "conventional" longwall equipment has not yet been designed to operate successfully beyond around 5m mining …

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LTCC Method. | Coal, Colliery and Mining Forum.

Nov 12, 2012· parent company to learn about Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) techniques. Introduced and improved over the last 20 years, the Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) method, used for extracting thick seams (greater than 4.5 m), was recently launched in Australia. More than 90 such longwalls already operate in China.

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Development of a method for a longwall top coal ...

2014 Coal Operators’ Conference The University of Wollongong 42 12 – 14 February 2014 DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD FOR LONGWALL TOP COAL CAVEABILITY ASSESSMENT Terry Medhurst1, Rudd Rankine2 and Michael Kelly3 ABSTRACT: Prediction and assessment of caveability for Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) operations remains problematic. Whilst operating effectively in …

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Longwall mining - Wikipedia

Longwall mining is a form of underground coal mining where a long wall of coal is mined in a single slice (typically 0.6–1.0 m thick). The longwall panel (the block of coal that is being mined) is typically 3–4 km long and 250–400 m wide.

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Longwall Top Coal Caving Application Assessment in Australia

The method employs both coal cutting of the lower portion of the coal seam accompanied by caving and reclamation of the ‘top’ coal. Coal is first cut from the longwall face using a conventional shearer and AFC arrangement working under hydraulic face supports that incorporate a rear coal conveyor and cantilever / flipper arrangement.

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Evaluation of Mine Scale Longwall Top Coal Caving ...

assigned a uniform height of 3.5m and the top coal was assigned with remaining height of the coal seam. The bottom part was extracted using the normal longwall extraction method. The top coal was extracted in such a way that it mimics the real top coal caving mechanism, i.e. top coals located

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Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) Mining Technology

Above Pic ture, A typical mining planning of longwall top coal caving method. Coal Seam Thickness 4.5-7 Meters; Phase 3rd 6.5-7 Meters. Depth of Coal 400-700 Meters; currently, the mining depth is 530 Meters . An additional AFC is attached to the rear of the chocks and …

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Overburden Failure and Ground Pressure Behaviour of ...

The average coal seam thickness was approximately 15.3 m. Fully mechanized top-coal 89 caving mining method was employed. The coal was cut to a height of 3.9 m while the top coal caving 90 height averaged 11.4 m. ZF/15000/27.5/42 hydraulic supports were used. No.5404 and No.5105

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Key technologies and equipment for a fully mechanized top ...

Although China was late to develop and apply top-coal caving mining technology, its development and applications are progressing very fast, showing significant economic potential and attracting attentions from other countries. In China, the top-coal caving mining method means the fully mechanized longwall top-coal caving mining method. A

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Caving mechanisms of loose top-coal in longwall top-coal ...

The top-coal caving mining method, developed steadily in the past two decades, has become the main method for thick seam coal mining in China. In recent years, the core research areas in the top-coal caving mining are the mechanisms of top-coal caving and the improvement of top-coal recovery ratio.

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Viewpoint Mining Magazine - Longwall Top-Coal Caving

Fortunately, there is a method that can allow a longwall system to recover all the coal in a high seam safely and efficiently without the geological and ecological concerns caused by partially mining the seam. The Longwall Top-Coal Caving (LTCC) method makes use of a second conveyor and the natural force of gravity to recover coal above the ...

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The Principle of Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) - YouTube

Apr 30, 2015· has extensive experience in the design of roof supports for specific mining conditions. Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) roof supports allow mining of seams seams thicker than 6 ...

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Caving Underground Mining Methods (longwall, Sublevel ...

Oct 23, 2014· Caving Underground Mining Methods (longwall, Sublevel caving, & Block caving) 1. This material is intended for use in lectures, presentations and as handouts to students, and is provided in Power point format so as to allow customization for the individual needs of course instructors.

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Types of Underground Mining Method Comparison

Caving Methods of Mining. There are three distinctive methods of working large deposits that involve, in some way, the factor of caving. Slightly different names are in use, but those that are simple as well as descriptive are top slicing, sublevel caving, and block caving.

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(PDF) Technique of top coal caving with vibration

The paper mainly studies a new theory and technique of top coal caving with vibration. ... A fully mechanized top-coal caving mining method is a main underground coal extraction method for ultra ...

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Longwall Mining - YouTube

May 09, 2012· http://clearcutmining.com/ This video describes the process of underground longwall mining used in the Australian coal mining industry.

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Longwall Top Coal Caving at the Broadmeadow Mine ...

May 14, 2019· The Broadmeadow mine was started using a longwall to extract coal at 4.7 m (15 ft) leaving the top section of the seam to fall into the gob. The adjacent open-cut mine has been mining the full seam section for more than 30 years, investigations and evaluations were made into the Top Coal Caving method and its suitability for the operation.

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| to Supply Two Complete Longwall Top Coal ...

Longwall Top Coal Caving. The longwall top coal caving (LTCC) mining method to be employed at the Eynez East underground coal mine is a special type of longwall mining applicable to seams thicker than 6 meters (20 feet). Conventional longwall equipment has not yet been designed to operate successfully in seams thicker than approximately 6 ...

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Top Coal Caving | Longwall | underground COAL

equipment for a Longwall Top Coal Caving face. Photo courtesy of Joy Manufacturing Company Pty Ltd A brief description of longwall top coal caving (LTCC) is included at the end of the Longwall section of the Fundamentals of Coal Mining module of this web site.

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Ground Control Principals for Longwall Top Coal Caving Mining

Under the hydraulic roof support, coal is cut with shearer and the broken cut coal is loaded by armored face conveyor (AFC) to the belt conveyor which is parallel to the face advance (Brady and Brown, 1985). Longwall top coal caving (LTCC) is a comparatively new method for mining thick coal seams.

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Stress analysis of longwall top coal caving - EDEM Simulation

Longwall top coal caving (LTCC) is a relatively new method of mining thick coal seams that is currently achieving high productivity and efficiency in application, particularly in China. The technique is similar to traditional longwall mining in that a cutting head slices coal from the lower section of the coal seam onto a conveyor belt […]

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Radiation characteristics of natural gamma-ray from coal ...

In China, coal is the main energy source, accounting for about 70% of primary energy production and consumption 1,2.Since top coal caving mining method has the advantage of high-production, high ...

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to supply two complete longwall top coal ...

Jul 02, 2014· The longwall top coal caving (LTCC) mining method to be employed at the Eynez East underground coal mine is a special type of longwall mining applicable to seams thicker than 6 …

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3D numerical modeling of longwall mining with top-coal caving

Undoubtedly, caving of naturally fractured or blasted top coal under gravity is the most critical factor in determination of mining method-related parameters such as geometry and dimensions of longwall panel, face support and production scheduling.

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Overburden movement characteristics of top-coal caving ...

The fully mechanized top-coal caving mining method was used to mine the 15 m thick No. 3–5 seam at a depth of 450 m in Tongxin mine, located in the Datong area, China. The seam was overlain with strong strata that are hard to cave and four partially mined coal seams. Excessive mine roadway closure and severe ground conditions at the longwall face and the tailgate were induced by periodic ...

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Mining Safety of Longwall Top-coal Caving in China

53 Mining Safety of Longwall Top-coal Caving in China Jian Wu, 1 Yueping Qin, 1 and Minghua Zhai1 1China Univ. of Mining and Technology, 011# Xueyuan Road, Haidian Dist, Beijing 100083, P.R. of China; 2Zhangji Coal Mine, Xuzhou Mining Bureau, Xuzhou 221147, Jiangsu Province, P.R of China ABSTRACT Longwall top-coal caving technology has developed rapidly in China, in recent years.

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Case Study on Overburden Fracturing during Longwall Top ...

Sep 22, 2016· Longwall top coal caving (LTCC) is a highly efficient underground mining method that has recently been introduced and modified, and is now being used in underground coal mines in China. The major difference between LTCC and traditional longwall methods is that LTCC extracts caved coal from behind shields as well as from the sheared face.

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